George Albert Smith, 9 January 1832

-- 9 January 1832
[Great-grandfather of George Albert Smith] John Smith: Baptized 9 January 1832. (1)

-- 1834
[Grandfather of George Albert Smith] George A Smith: Armor bearer, Zion's Camp 1834 q(1)

-- 1830s
Concerning Gratitude, by President George Albert Smith

... My great-grandparents lived in New England. When the message of the restored gospel was first taken to that section by Orson Pratt and others, the houses of worship were not open to them. They had a difficult time in finding a place in which to preach. They came to a small village and thought surely they would readily find someone who would offer to open a place for the preaching of the gospel, but they found none. At length they inquired of a man on the street as to where they could secure a place. He said, "Go find Winslow Farr. I think he can help you. So they went to see Winslow Farr; he was easily found; everyone knew him. They told him what they wanted to find a place in which to preach the gospel. He asked, "What are you going to preach about?" They answered, "Jesus Christ and the gospel." He said, "I will help you. They found a place and invited the people to come. Orson Pratt told them God had spoken again from the heavens, and that a young man named Joseph Sm
ith had received heavenly manifestations. The Lord had directed him to an ancient record which the Prophet translated the Book of Mormon. It was a divine record, the story of the ancestry of the American Indians.

Orson Pratt's testimony was so effective that Winslow Farr came up to him, took his hand, and said, "I have enjoyed your meeting tonight. Where are you going to stay?" On learning that they had no place to stay, he said, "You come home with me. The missionaries didn't know that Winslow Farr's wife was dying of a dread disease tubercular consumption. But this servant of the Lord, Orson Pratt, seeing her condition and realizing how kind her husband had been, looked at her and asked, "Have you faith to be healed?" The doctor had said she could not be healed, could live but a few days. When asked that question she said, "I don't know if I have that faith or not, but I know God could heal me if he wanted to. And then this servant of the Lord said, calling her by her given name, "Olive, in the name of God, I command you to be healed." She was healed and in a few days was going about performing her household duties.

It was not long after that the Farrs came down where our people were situated in Nauvoo. And when our people came farther west, the Farrs were among the first to come. Winslow Farr, my great-grandfather, and Olive Farr, his wife, had three sons and a daughter born to them. They were among the first people to live in Ogden. The last time the Farr family assembled to celebrate her birthday, they found she was grandmother, great-grandmother, or great-great-grandmother to more than three hundred and twenty people, and I was one of the great-grandchildren. (3)

-- 1835-37
[Great-grand father of George Albert Smith] John Smith: Stake president (1835-37) q(1)

-- 1 March 1835
[George A. Smith, grandfather of George Albert Smith] George A. Smith: Ordained member of First Quorum of Seventy 1 March 1835. (1)

1 - Cook, Lyndon W., The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants, Seventy's Mission Bookstore, Provo UT, 1985,
2 - Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power, Appendix 6, Biographical Sketches of General Officers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830-47,
3 - Ancestors of Tim Farr,

LDS History Chronology: George Albert Smith

Mormon History Timeline: The life of George Albert Smith

George Albert Smith, June 26, 1817

-- June 26, 1817
[Grand father of George Albert Smith] George Albert Smith is born, June 26, 1817, commonly known as George A. Smith to distinguish him from his grandson of the same name. His birth is in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, the son of John Smith and Clarissa Lyman, and a nephew of Joseph Smith, Sr. (1)

-- May 7, 1818
[Sarah Ann Libby (Smith Smith) [grandmother of George Albert Smith]] Sarah Ann was born on May 7, 1818 to Nathaniel and Tirzah Lord Libby, in Ossipee, Grafton, New Hampshire. Lowell Institute for Savings Bank Records show that Sarah Libby was a carder in 1841. Her family records also document that she was a pastry cook for one of the boarding houses in Lowell.... (2)

-- Jul 27, 1820
[Grandfather of George Albert Smith] Lorin Farr, later a friend of Joseph Smith, pioneer, and civic and Church leader in Ogden, Utah, is born in Waterford, Vermont. (3)

-- before 1830
[Great-grand father of George Albert Smith] John Smith: Mason before 1830, Harmony, New York (4)

-- 1832
[Grandfather of George Albert Smith] George A Smith: Baptized 1832 (4)

1 - Wikipedia entry, George A. Smith
2 - Lowell Mormons
3 - The Woodland Institute 'On This Day Historical Database,'
4 - Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power, Appendix 6, Biographical Sketches of General Officers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830-47,

LDS History Chronology: George Albert Smith

Mormon History Timeline: The life of George Albert Smith

George Albert Smith, July 16, 1781

-- July 16, 1781
[Great-grand father of George Albert Smith] Birth of John Smith (July 16, 1781 - May 23, 1854), known as Uncle John, was an early leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Smith was the younger brother of Joseph Smith, Sr., uncle of Joseph Smith, Jr. and Hyrum Smith, father of George A. Smith, grandfather of John Henry Smith, and great-grandfather of George Albert Smith. He served as an assistant counselor in the First Presidency under Joseph Smith, Jr. and as Presiding Patriarch under Brigham Young. He was succeeded as Presiding Patriarch by his great nephew, who was also named John Smith. (1)
-- January 12, 1794
Winslow Farr Sr [great-grandfather of George Albert Smith] was born on 12 Jan 1794 in Chesterfield, Cheshire, New Hampshire, United States. (2)
-- Jun 23, 1799
Olive Hovey Freeman [great-grandmother of George Albert Smith] was born on 23 Jun 1799 in Lebanon, Grafton, New Hampshire, United States. Parents: Elijah Freeman, born Nov. 3, 1757, Mansfield, Conn., and Olive Hovey, born Oct. 30, 1761 died Oct. 21, 1820 married Dec. 27, 1781 (3)
-- December 5, 1816
Marriage: Winslow Farr to Olive Hovey Freeman [great-grandparents of George Albert Smith] Dec. 5, 1816, Hanover, Vt. Their children: John b. Dec. 14, 1817, d. infant; Aaron Freeman b. Oct. 31, 1818, m. Persis Atherton Jan. 16, 1844; Lorin b. July 27, 1820, m. Nancy B. Chase [maternal grandmother of George Albert Smith] Olive Hovey b. March 18, 1825, m. William Walker Nov. 3, 1843; Diantha b. Oct. 12, 1828, m. William Clayton Jan. 1845; Winslow b. May 11, 1837, m. Emily Jane Covington Oct. 17, 1858. Family resided Waterford and Charleston, Vt., before coming to Utah. (2)
[Great-grand father of George Albert Smith] Winslow Farr wives: Roxana Porter; Freeman, Olive Hovey [great-grandmother of George Albert Smith]; Clemens, Adelia Maria; Randall, Almena; Colburn, Amanda Bower; Cole, Achsach Sans Earl (2)
1 - Wikipedia entry, John Smith
2 - Ancestors of Tim Farr,

LDS History Chronology: George Albert Smith
Mormon History Timeline: The life of George Albert Smith

To read through posts on this topic, click "newer post" below.

A Selected Chronology of George Albert Smith

41-01.gifThe Priesthood / Relief Society manual "Teachings of Presidents of the Church: George Albert Smith" will be studied by Latter-day Saint men and women in 2012.  LDS-Church-History will present a selected chronology of the life of George Albert Smith, 8th president of the L.D.S. Church, providing further insight into his life.

George Albert Smith was born of a "royal" Mormon heritage.  His father, grandfather and great-grandfather were all members of the Quorum of the Twelve and First Presidency.  His great-grandfather was a brother to Joseph Smith Sr., and  George Albert Smith's wife was a grand-daughter of Wilford Woodruff.  Genealogical information of his ancestry will be presented, as well as major events from their lives where available.

His father, John Henry Smith, kept a detailed journal, which sheds light on the childhood and family life of George Albert Smith.  When George Albert Smith became an apostle, he and his father were the first father-son pair serving at the same time in the Quorum of the Twelve.  Entries from John Henry Smith's journals provide valuable insight into the first forty years of the life of George Albert Smith.

Aspects of his life as an apostle will also be drawn from other sources, including his own journals, the journals of his fellow apostles, and also from President Heber J. Grant's.  Major issues dealt with by the Quorum of the Twelve will also be included.

Upon the death of Heber J. Grant, George Albert Smith became the 8th president of the church. This chronology will include aspects of his life, presidency and major events in the administration and history of the church during his presidency.

Each day, several items from this chronology will be posted.  The best way to follow LDS Church History is by subscribing to one of the following:

End of topic: The Word of Wisdom

This ends - A Chronology of the Word of Wisdom. Thanks for tuning in.

In 1981, Dialogue published Lester Bush's groundbreaking article "The Word of Wisdom in Early Nineteenth-Century Perspective." It began, "despite its high visibility in every day Mormon life, the Word of Wisdom has received remarkably little attention in scholarly journals." The article was so popular, that issue of Dialogue sold out, and a special reprint of Bush's article was issued.

Today, the history of the Word of Wisdom is still compelling. Adopted as an outward badge of Mormonism during the prohibition years, the Word of Wisdom has proven to be a prophetic revelatory suggestion turned commandment. As Lester Bush concludes in his article:

'...whatever merit or function the Word of Wisdom had for the nineteenth century Mormons, in retrospect we know that circumstances changed around the turn of the century in such a way that its guidelines could unquestionably promote better physical health .... That this development--the implications of which were not apparent to the medical scientists for decades--coincided with a decision by the church leadership to require firm adherence to the Word of Wisdom is quite remarkable. It may well represent their most demonstrably prescient insight to date in helping assure that the "destroying angel" of disease will "pass us by."'
In conjunction with the 2012 Relief Society/Priesthood Manual, the next topic will be the life of George Albert Smith.

George Albert Smith became the 8th president of the LDS Church. LDS-Church-History will provide a detailed chronology of his life base on a variety of sources.

History of the Word of Wisdom, Mar 27, 1994

-- Mar 27, 1994
SALT LAKE TRIBUNE article, "The Ups and Downs of Prozac-Utah's Favorite Drug." The reporter quotes a distinguished psychiatrist as saying: "the typical Utahn taking Prozac frequently is a housewife overwhelmed with a lot of children. She's not able to deal with an unresolved problem with a marriage, and wants a solution. She will say to her doctor that she is kind of depressed and they will prescribe it. What she really needs is family counseling or therapy." The psychiatrist later claims he was misquoted. (1)

-- During 2002
LA Times reports that Utah ranks #1 in anti-depressant and narcotic drug usage. (2)

-- Jul 5, 2007
A new Brigham Young University study using sophisticated eye-tracking technology showed that, to most adolescents, alcohol advertisers' "responsible drinking" messages might as well be written in invisible ink. (3)


About LDS-Church-History:
1 - On This Day in Mormon History,
2 - Standing for Something More: The Excommunication of Lyndon Lamborn: Appendix D, Modern True History Timeline of the LDS Church, by Lindon Lamborn,
3 - Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, United Kingdom, "On This Day,"

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom
Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, Apr 15, 1983

-- Apr 15, 1983
University Post: The Unofficial Newspaper of Brigham Young University reports interview with director of Standards Department. He acknowledges that students suspected of cheating, illegal drug use, stealing, or homosexuality are expelled from BYU if they refuse to take polygraph examination. BYU Security has licensed polygraph examiner. In separate article, newspaper's photographer reports observing Church Security using specially trained dogs to search for bombs prior to public meetings attended by general authorities in Salt Lake Tabernacle. (1)

-- Sep 15, 1988
[Mark Hofmann] Hofmann attempts suicide by way of a drug overdose. He is rushed to the University of Utah Health Sciences Center. (2)

-- During 1988
[Histories of Utah] A one-volume history: Wayne K. Hinton's Utah: Unusual beginning to Unique Present (1988) - an oversize coffee table book, filled with pictures, many in color, the popular and well-written text briefly covered most periods and subjects. (3)

-- Feb 28, 1993
[U.S. Religious History] The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) along with the FBI and other federal agents staged a raid the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas. (4)

-- Mar 24, 1994
Jane Partridge, president of her high school seminary class, testifies before U.S. congress in support of reducing legal limits for blood-alcohol level of teenage drivers. (5)

1 - Advent Adam website (defunct) - based on
2 - Whittaker, David J., The Hofmann Maze, A Book Review Essay with a Chronology and Bibliography of the Hofmann Case, BYU Studies Vol. 29, No. 1, pg.80,
3 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Utah History
4 - Cline, Austin, History of American Religion: Timeline
5 - On This Day in Mormon History,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, Jan 17, 1974

-- Jan 17, 1974
The ROLLING STONE publishes an article "The Mormon Word: No Hair, Sex or 3 Dog Night" which tells of the ASBYU Social Office's cancellation of a scheduled appearance by the group "Three Dog Night" immediately after a conference address by Boyd K. Packer. The article quotes Mark Alexander, BYU social vice-president: "In light of Elder Packer's talk, we are taking a closer look at the groups we are booking, and we are making sure we are in harmony with church standards". In the previous Oct General Conference, Packer referred to the "shabbiness, the irreverence, the immorality, and the addictions" associated with many contemporary entertainers, and intimated that the music itself was inherently evil. (1)

-- Jun 18, 1977
First-Presidency-commissioned editorial appears in DESERET NEWS in which the Church "officially" disclaims "fads . . . advocated under the guise of the Word of Wisdom by unauthorized persons with unwarranted claims respecting health." It also "completely" disclaims "any sponsorship or endorsement of such teachers, remedies, foods or fads" that "use other phases of religion . . . to give further appearance of credibility to their projects." The editorial reaffirms the Mormon view of medical care: "To refuse to accept assistance from the highly skilled men and women now available may be to reject the very help that could save a life. Some patients are known to have died from diseases which 'nature remedies' could not relieve but which proven medical practices could have cured . . ." (2)

-- Apr 19, 1979
A letter to the editor in the DESERET NEWS states, "As a member of the LDS church . . . I must express my feelings about your recent article on medical quackery (Apr 9). The article would have us believe the drug and surgery doctors are the'good guys' and all other health practitioners are the 'bad guys.' I resent that because it leaves my church and my God on the wrong side of the fence. In particular, I resent the inclusion among the 'quacks' of the doctors who treat with herbs." (2)

-- Jan 24, 1980
[U.S. Religious History] On this night, William Murray (son of American atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair) had a dream which he interpreted as a religious vision from God, leading to his conversion to a fundamentalist brand of Christianity. He gave up drinking and smoking and engaged in efforts to undue the separation of church and state which his mother had long struggled for. (3)

-- Feb 27, 1983
The sesquicentennial anniversary of the Word of Wisdom is observed throughout the Church and at the Newel K. Whitney store in Kirtland, Ohio, the location of the 1833 revelation. (4)

1 - Advent Adam website (defunct) - based on
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - Cline, Austin, History of American Religion: Timeline
4 - The Woodland Institute 'On This Day Historical Database,'

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

More History?

Want more LDS history? Check out Mormon-Church-History, a comprehensive chronology of church history. It is a tour through church history, covering a little bit each day through the the history of the church. About a dozen chronological entries are posted daily, gradually covering the entire history of the Mormon church over the next several years. More info can be found here:

History of the Word of Wisdom, Jan 8, 1965

-- Jan 8, 1965
Secretary to the First Presidency Joseph L. Anderson writes in answer to a question by a Mormon "regarding the drinking of Sanka Coffee": "I am directed to tell you that the drinking of a beverage made from the coffee bean, from which all caffeine and deleterious drugs have been removed, is not regarded as a violation of the Word of Wisdom." (1)

-- Mar 26, 1966
CHURCH NEWS reports that Devendra J. Singh, former Hindu "is the first of his race to be called on a mission, the second East Indian to go through the temple and the fourth of his people to be ordained and elder." CHURCH NEWS editorial on "Politics and Religion" states: "We have been taught to avoid extremes and extremists, whether in the Word of Wisdom, in politics or in any other area of thought. The Lord's work is not accomplished by immoderate measures and radical groups . . .The Lord justifies us in defending our Constitution and this land for which it was written. But He does not justify radicalism in doing so. . . . The Church has nothing to do with Communists, nothing to do with racists, nothing to do with Birchers, nothing to do with any slanted group. But it does have everything to do with the eternal salvation of human souls." (2)

-- Aug. 30, 1966
[Temple] Inquiry has been received from the presidency of one of the stakes in Las Vegas regarding the attitude that the Church should assume in the matter of appointing to administrative positions or issuing temple recommends to employees [of ] gambling casinos, more specifically employees who are dealers, pit bosses, cashiers in tellers windows, change girls, bartenders, cocktail waitresses and cigar and cigarette girls. This question came before the Council of the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve for consideration some months ago, and it was the sentiment of the Council at that time that we do not want any of our members participating in these gambling dens. President [David O.] McKay indicated that while he did not want to rule arbitrarily on this matter that we cannot handle whiskey and gambling without being scarred by it, and that our people should stay away from such places. The President further said that we had better not temporize with these things. 6. "ST
ANDARDS AND PRINCIPLES" In a subsequent consideration of the matter it was decided to convey this information to stake presidents who are concerned with this problem and advise that we should not appoint to administrative positions nor issue temple recommends to people in these gambling places whose employment requires them to meet the public and participate in the manner indicated. We hope that our brethren and sisters can find employment in a more desirable environment. [David O. Mc- Kay, Hugh B. Brown, N. Eldon Tanner, and Joseph Fielding Smith to Stake Presidents in Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada, [and] Presidents of California Missions, Aug. 30, 1966] (3)

-- Jun 1, 1969
Cigarette ads are henceforth banned on broadcasts of LDS church's radio and television stations in Utah, Washington state, Missouri, California, and New York. (2)

-- Oct 21, 1973
First Presidency letter urges 78,800 Mormons in Washington state to vote against referendum to allow nineteen-year-olds to purchase and consume alcoholic beverages. (2)

1 - Advent Adam website (defunct) - based on
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - Anderson, Devery; The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, July 9, 1954

-- July 9, 1954
[Temple] Considered a letter * about issuing temple recommends to nontithe payers. I explained that people who go to the temple should be full tithe payers and should observe the Word of Wisdom; that as a matter of fact, it is a question of their faith. Men who have a testimony of the Gospel and believe it should contribute to it and if they fail to keep their promise to observe these commandments the Bishop has a right to withhold the recommend, not wholly on the failure to pay tithing but because of their lack of faith in the Gospel. Their failure to pay tithing would indicate their lack of faith in the Gospel. [David O. McKay diary, July 9, 1954] (1)

-- Oct 12, 1954
.... Intermountain-based companies of national stature (not owned or controlled by LDS church) which have Mormon executives from their inception or at various times are ... Swire Coca-Cola USA... (2)

-- During 1954
In Doctrines of Salvation (1954), Vol 1:139-140, President Smith again comments about how life was transplanted from another earth.

... You also found Lucifer here, and all his associates, seeking to teach you all manner of false doctrine and trying to lead you astray; he sought to teach you to disobey law, to disregard commandments, and to freely eat of all the fruits and plants in the garden, of which you had been commanded not to partake; he taught you to forget the word of wisdom, to take the name of God in vain, and every other unholy and impure practices, and thus the years of youth went on, until by the bitters in life the law of repentance was awakened in your soul, and by this law you overcame temptation, turned away from sin as best you could, and sought to walk in obedience to all truth, and as you approached manhood, the law of matrimony came also before you. You accepted and obeyed, and entered into an everlasting covenant with one of the daughters of God, to be your wife and companion forever. ... (3)

-- Fri Feb 8, 1957
[David O. McKay Office Journal] 8:30 to 9:00 a.m.--The First Presidency met with Chief Cleon Skousen.

February 11, 1957: 8:30 a.m.--Met by appointment at his request Mayor Adiel Stewart. He wanted to know if the city fathers are moving along the right line in trying to clean up the city of lawbreakers, especially with regard to the dispensing of liquor through private lockers by some of the clubs here in the city. I told Mayor Stewart that we not only approve but consider it their duty to enforce the law. I further said that I think Chief Cleon Skousen is the best Chief of Police we have had for many a day, and that he is doing what he thinks is right, and that he (Mayor Stewart) should uphold him in what he is trying to do. (4)

-- Feb. 1, 1960
[Temple] ... Every Church member eight years of age or over must have a recommend to enter the temple. .... Before issuing recommends bishops will assure themselves by searching inquiry that the recipients are free from all kinds of immoral practices; that they have no affiliation, in sympathy or otherwise, with any of the apostate groups that are running counter to the established order of the Church; that they sustain the local and General Authorities of the Church; are full tithepayers, or will covenant to become such; that they observe the Word of Wisdom, abstaining from tea, coffee, tobacco, and liquor; and that they are fully worthy as evidenced by their observance of the whole gospel law including abiding by all conditions of their temple obligations.... (1)

1 - Anderson, Devery; The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History,
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - Quotations Dealing with the Relationship of Our First Earthy Parents to Our Heavenly Parents (1830-1978)
4 - McKay, David O., Office Journal

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, Feb. 28, 1944

-- Feb. 28, 1944
[Temple] ... Bishops should always remember that only those who are really worthy members of the Church should be given recommends. They are not to be issued to persons who do not sustain the General Authorities of the Church; who are not honest tithepayers or who do not undertake to become honest tithepayers, as distinguished from part tithepayers or token payers; who do not observe the Word of Wisdom or express a willingness to undertake to observe the Word of Wisdom; and who are not otherwise fully worthy by believing in and living the gospel. ... [David O. McKay diary, Feb. 28, 1944] (1)

-- Aug 16, 1944
First Presidency instructs its Hotel Utah to stop serving liquor. (2)

-- During 1946
(Matthew Cowley) Spent much of his life serving in alcoholic rehabilitation programs, counseling alcoholics and their families, and speaking to Alcoholics Anonymous groups. (3)

-- Jul 14, 1949
Presiding Bishop LeGrand Richards approves installation of cigarette vending machine in bus terminal of Church's Temple Square Hotel. (2)

-- Oct 16,1951
[Utah] Temple council of First Presidency, Quorum of Twelve Apostles and Patriarch to church decides to allow beer commercials on church-owned KSL television station. (4)

1 - Anderson, Devery; The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History,
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - Van Wagoner, Richard and Walker, Steven C., A Book of Mormons,
4 - Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Appendix 5, Selected Chronology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1848-1996,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, January 8, 1938

-- January 8, 1938
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] This evening at 6:30 I was at the Lion House at a banquet given in honor of George Albert Smith. ... I made brief remarks and told the joke about the two drunkards at the time George Albert Smith was sustained an apostle, one drunkard asked the other if he would like to know his opinion of the new apostle, and he said Yes, and the answer was "There are too d----d many Smiths." The other said "Do you want my opinion of your opinion: Well, it is my opinion of your opinion that the Lord doesn't give a damn for your opinion." (1)

-- January, 1939
Anti-Liquor-Tobacco Campaign-- President Heber J. Grant commended the anti-liquor-tobacco campaign being conducted by the Council of the Twelve and recommended the program to all stake, ward and priesthood quorums. (Compiler's resume.) {1939-January-Improvement Era 42:7, January, 1939.} (2)

-- Sept. 5, 1940
... No person should be given a recommend to the Temple who does not uphold the General Authorities of the Church; who is not an honest tithepayer or who does not undertake to become an honest tithe payer, as distinguished from a part tithepayer or a token payer; who does not either observe the Word of Wisdom or express a willingness to undertake to observe the Word of Wisdom; and who is not otherwise fully worthy by believing in and living the Gospel. ... [ George F. Richards diary, Sept. 5, 1940] (3)

-- October 3, 1942
General epistle of the First Presidency to the Saints in every land-- October 13, 1942.

President Heber J. Grant had suffered partial paralysis in 1940. His mind, however, was clear and active. As in the April 1942 Conference, the message of the First Presidency was read by President Clark. .... Drink and the Word of Wisdom

The world is smitten, nigh unto death, with great and grevious tribulations, following the commission of cardinal sins.

Over the earth, and it seems particularly in America, the demon drink is in control. Drunken with strong drink, men have lost their reason; their counsel has been destroyed; their judgment and vision are fled; they reel forward to destruction.

Drink brings cruelty into the home; it walks arm in arm with poverty; its companions are disease and plague; it puts chastity to flight; it knows neither honesty nor fair dealing; it is a total stranger to truth; it drowns conscience; it is the bodyguard of evil; it curses all who touch it.

Drink has brought more woe and misery, broken more hearts, wrecked more homes, committed more crimes, filled more coffins, than all the wars the world has suffered.

Therefore, we thank the faithful Saints for their observance of the Word of Wisdom, for their putting aside of drink. The Lord is pleased with you. You have been a bulwark of strength to this people and to the world. Your influence has been for righteousness. The Lord will not forget your good works when you stand before Him in judgment. He has blessed and will continue to bless you with the blessings He promised to those who obey this divine law of health. We invoke the mercies of the Lord upon you that you may continue strong in spirit, to cast off temptation and continue teachers to the youth of Zion by word and deed.

But so great is the curse of drink that we should not be held guiltless did we not call upon all offending Saints to forsake it and banish it from their lives forever.

God has spoken against drink in our day, and has given to this, the Lord's own Church, a specific revelation concerning it, as a word of wisdom by revelation-

"That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of your Father . . .

"And, again, strong drinks are not for the belly, but for the washing of your bodies."-(D&C 89:5, 7.)

This declares the divine wisdom. It is God's law of health, and is binding upon each and every one of us. We cannot escape its operation, for it is based upon eternal truth. Men may agree or disagree about this word of the Lord; if they agree, it adds nothing; if they disagree, it means nothing. Beyond His word we cannot reach, and it is enough for every Latter-day Saint, willing and trying to follow divine guidance.

For more than half a century President Grant has on every appropriate occasion admonished the Saints touching their obligation to keep the Word of Wisdom. He has told them what it means to them in matters of health, quoting the words of the Lord thereon. He has pointed out that treasures of knowledge, even hidden knowledge, would come to those who lived the law. He has, over and over again, shown what it would mean financially to every member who would keep the law, what it would mean financially to our people, and what it would mean financially to a nation. He has told us what it would mean in ending human woes, misery, sorrow, disease, crime, and death. But his admonitions have not found a resting place in all our hearts.

We, the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, now solemnly renew all these counsels, we repeat all these admonitions, we reinvoke obedience to God's law of health given us by God Himself.

We repeat here the directions heretofore given by President Grant: We ask that every General Authority, every stake and ward officer, every officer of Priesthood quorums, every auxiliary officer in ward, stake, or general board, every president of mission, every regular or stake missionary, in short, every officer in every Church organization, strictly to keep the Word of Wisdom from this moment forward. If any feels too weak to do this, we must ask him to step aside for someone who is willing and able so to do, for there are thousands of Latter-day Saints who are willing to obey the commandments and who are able to carry on the work of the Lord.

We ask all Church presiding officers immediately to set their official houses in order. ... (2)

1 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
2 - Clark, James R., Messages of the First Presidency (6 volumes)
3 - Anderson, Devery; The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, 1935 to 1937

-- During 1935 to 1937
[Hugh B. Brown] He also formed a lifelong allegiance with the Democratic party, which led to an unsuccessful run for political office and an unpleasant term of service as first chairman of Utah's Liquor Control Commission from 1935 to 1937. (1)

-- During 1935
[Prohibition] The violence accompanying prohibition, the rise of gangs and gangland warfare in large cities like Chicago, the failure of the Eighteenth Amendment to end alcohol consumption, the realization that prohibition would not solve the nation's social and economic problems, and the crisis of the Great Depression were all factors that led to the repeal of prohibition. However, repeal did not bring a return to the old practice of open and unregulated sale of liquor. In 1935 the state of Utah began selling liquor through state-operated stores, a practice that has continued to the present. (2)

-- During 1936
(Fawn M. Brodie) They had met in the student cafeteria: "Because I was tall and could easily be seen, and because I needed work to help pay school expenses, I was given a special job at the University of Chicago cafeteria. I carried a big coffee pot and poured second cups of coffee. When I poured an extra cup for Bernie, he gave me two red carnations. He brought me flowers every day for the next six weeks, when we were married." (3)

-- April 26, 1937
Evils of Alcohol-- The Eighteenth Amendment had been repealed four years earlier, "contrary to the wishes of the General Authorities of the Church." (See ECH, 1935 ed., p. 644.)

By this letter, the First Presidency authorized a campaign to combat the evils of the use of alcohol, such campaign to be spearheaded by the Council of the Twelve. In the letter, they state that "Total abstinence is the best means of securing, maintaining and enforcing prohibition of intoxicating liquors; and abstinence and self-control are fostered by educationÃÂ. "


April 26, 1937. President Rudger Clawson and Members of the Council of the Twelve.

Dear Brethren:

In your communication of March 18, 1937, you say that you have given consideration to methods of combating the increasing trend toward the use of alcohol and other intoxicating beverages even among members of our Church, and, as a result of your study, you offer eight definite recommendations which we approve as follows:

1. You may proceed to organize a campaign throughout the Church against the use of alcoholic beverages. We suggest, however, that while you major your attention against the use of alcohol in particular, that you continue to lay special emphasis upon the evils that follow the use of the cigarette and other forms of tobacco.

2. We commend your plan to make this campaign a project for all the Priesthood quorums, both Melchizedek and Aaronic, charging the quorums with the responsibility of (a) keeping their own members free from the vice of using alcohol and tobacco and (b) assisting all others to do likewise.

3. Consult the Presiding Bishopric with a view of securing their cooperation and that of the Aaronic Priesthood in the carrying out of the proposed program.

4. Auxiliary organizations should give to the Priesthood quorums such help in the campaign as may be consistently requested of them by Priesthood quorums.

5. The preparation and distribution to the various quorums of report blanks upon which shall be recorded, at times designated, the progress of the quorums in the elimination of drinking among their members, will be a helpful and contributive factor in the success of this project.

6. Regarding officers of quorums disciplining weak and recalcitrant members who persist in the use of intoxicants, we suggest that you emphasize the importance of getting these recalcitrant members into some activity through which they may gain strength to overcome their weakness. The skill of true leadership is shown not in disfellowshipment or excommunication, but in conversion.

7. Providing the quorums with literature, moving and sound pictures and production machines, and any other facilities and material, we most heartily endorse. We commend you for taking advantage of the moving picture and sound production machines as educational factors in this project.

8. We cannot think of the nature of the campaign you propose being anything else but educational and spiritual. This it should be in the truest sense of the word. It should not and must not be tinctured with political or partisan issues.

Slogans are battle cries, and are truly effective when the heat of a campaign justifies their use. When repeated listlessly without spirit behind them, they become worse than ineffective. We suggest that you consider very carefully the advisability of choosing a slogan.

We commend you for your desire to adopt effective measures to counteract the growing evil of intemperance and cigarette smoking, particularly among the young people of our Church. Total abstinence is the best means of securing, maintaining and enforcing prohibition of intoxicating liquors; and abstinence and self-control are fostered by education and true enlightenment regarding the evils of alcohol and tobacco.

May the Lord bless your efforts to the good of the young people of the Church, the State, and the Nation, we remain.

Sincerely your brethren, HEBER J. GRANT, DAVID O. MCKAY, First Presidency. {1937-April 26-Improvement Era 40:105, February, 1937.} (4)

1 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Hugh B. Brown,
2 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Prohibition,
3 - Van Wagoner, Richard and Walker, Steven C., A Book of Mormons,
4 - Clark, James R., Messages of the First Presidency, (6 volumes) by James R. Clark

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, March 22, 1935

-- March 22, 1935
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] Sister Levi Edgar Young called and made serious complaints about Brother Widtsoe's criticism of her husband. Denied that they had ever served tea in their home except on one occasion when one of her daughters was entertaining some school girls. She acknowledged that that was a mistake, but any statement that her husband had brewed tea at the university and drank it was a falsehood. I couldn't quote the charges that have been made against him because they are second-hand. (1)

-- April 4, 1935
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] Alvin Beesley, and a son of Charles C. Richards called and made an appeal for Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt, the President's wife, to speak over the radio during Conference. I told them, not much, that I had no confidence in Mrs. Roosevelt, and that I had no confidence in the New Deal, that I thought the foundation to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment, namely to have whiskey, was a rotten foundation and that there was nothing but failure for it in the end. This is the first time I have expressed myself so plainly regarding what I think is one of the most outrageous things that have ever happened to have as a basis for winning the election the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. They claim more drunkenness since they got the Eighteenth Amendment than before, all of which is a falsehood. Since the repeal I have seen more drunkenness in the past six months than I saw in all the years that prohibition was in force. (1)

-- Jun 10, 1935
[U.S. Religious History] Alcoholic's Anonymous was founded in Akron, Ohio. (2)

-- August 15, 1935
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] At 4:30 President McKay and I had a meeting with Brother Hugh B. Brown. We feel that his suggestion that he resign his position as President of the Granite Stake in view of his position with the State Liquor Board is the proper thing. He has our perfect confidence and we believe will do a good work in charge of liquor distribution. It is a curse to everybody that touches it, but we believe it will be controlled better by a splended (sic) man like Brother Brown at the head of it. It is a disagreeable job and it is hardly consistent for him to preside over a stake and take care of that work at the same time. We thought his suggestion that he be retired is the proper thing. (1)

-- During 1935
(Hugh B. Brown) Appointed chairman of Utah's first liquor commission: "We must find a condition that will not be ideal for the bootleggers. … I had a lot of experience with this in Alberta… and with that background and experience and observation, I am unalterably opposed to the licensing system and in favor of state control." (3)

1 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
2 - Cline, Austin, History of American Religion: Timeline
3 - Van Wagoner, Richard and Walker, Steven C., A Book of Mormons,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, January 2, 1934

-- January 2, 1934
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] My brother B.F. Grant [of the Deseret News] called with a page advertisement for beer and wanted to know whether or not he should accept it. (1)

-- January 3, 1934
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] Richard W. Madsen called and said he hoped we would not issue a license to an individual to handle beer in the Hotel Utah but have the license issued to the hotel itself.


-- Apr. 19, 1934
[Temple] ... Bishops are authorized to issue temple recommends to all faithful members of the Melchizedek Priesthood and adult women members of their wards. Recommends for the performance of the ordinance of baptism for the dead may also be issued to exemplary young people. Recommends must be countersigned by the president of the stake. It is important that all those who may desire to enter the temple for endowments or other ordinances, should observe the law of tithing. The applicant should also observe all other principles of the Gospel, should keep the Word of Wisdom, not use profanity, should not join nor be a member of any secret oath-bound organization and should sustain without reservation the general and local authorities of the church. The privileges of the temple should come as a reward for faithful and diligent service. ... [George F. Richards diary, Apr. 19, 1934] (2)

-- March 1, 1935
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] At 8:30 Robert L. Judd called with President Calder of Vernal and Brother O.C. Bowman, member of the Utah State Senate, and I assured them that any statements made that the Church was trying to get laws so that liquor could be sold in the Utah Hotel were not true, that the Church officials are unanimous in favor of no liquor being sold in hotels and restaurants. I hope these brethren will use their influence to head off legislation in favor of saloons, drug stores and restaurants selling whiskey. (1)

-- March 20, 1935
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] The editorial in the News last night I consider very wishy-washy, and the headlines about city officials not believing that the liquor law would be inforced (sic), I consider an outrage pure and simple because the interviews, with the exception of one little interview of three lines with all the people whose views they published were to the effect that the law should be inforced (sic). (1)

1 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
2 - Anderson, Devery; The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, March 20, 1933

-- March 20, 1933
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] I called at the State Capitol and told Governor Henry G. Blood that I would not feel to condemn him if he saw fit to sign the bill allowing beer to be manufactured in Utah to be exported outside of Utah. Neither would I condemn him if he signed the other bill. I did not tell him I hoped he would veto the cigaret (sic) bill but I certainly do. I am harassed with doubts as to whether or not he should sign the other. If he doesn't sign the bill permitting the manufacture of beer for exportation it means ruin for Mr. Becker, who has been absolutely fair since the time of the Eighteenth Amendment, and I do not think has manufacutred (sic) a drop of alcoholic liquors to sell. He cannot hope to sell Becco and other soft drinks if beer is permissible. He read me a couple of letters from Richard R. Lyman that annoyed me very much, because they intimated that Brother Blood would be untrue to his religion and everything else if he did not sign these bill
s. (1)

-- Jun 22, 1933
First Presidency and apostles decide that "the Church as an organization could not take part in the campaign for the repeal of the 18th Amendment since this [is] a partisan political question. It [is] hoped however that all L.D.S. would vote against repeal [of national Prohibition]." Thirty-five years later, LDS hierarchy reverses this decision and participates actively in campaign against liquor-by-the-drink in Utah as "moral issue." (2)

-- 1933. July 27
(James E. Talmage) : Died at seventy-one of a throat infection complicated by overwork into acute myocarditis. He had stayed in his office at 47 East South Temple overnight July 23, suffering from a slightly irritated throat which was not relieved by his favorite drink, root beer. He remained in his office on the 24th, but on the 25th was so ill he required help getting home. (3)

-- Dec 9,1933
[Utah] Church News article "Mormonism in The New Germany," enthusiastically emphasizes parallels "between the LDS Church and some of the ideas and policies of the National Socialists." First, Nazis have introduced "Fast Sunday." Second, "it is a very well known fact that Hitler observes a form of living which Mormons term the Word of Wisdom. Finally, due to the importance given to the racial question by Nazis and the almost necessity of proving that one's grandmother was not a Jewess, there no longer is resistance against genealogical research by German Mormons who now have received letters of encouragement complimenting them for their patriotism." (4)

-- December 30, 1933
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] I had a talk with President Ivins and told him I was in favor of all of the General Authorities resigning as directors of the Utah Hotel, because I felt they would simply have to sell beer and it would be better for us to be out of it. He did not agree with me. We decided to call a directors meeting, however, for Tuesday to decide just what to do with regard to selling legalized beer. (1)

1 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - Van Wagoner, Richard and Walker, Steven C., A Book of Mormons,
4 - Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Appendix 5, Selected Chronology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1848-1996,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, Apr 2,1932

-- Apr 2,1932
[Utah] Heber J. Grant launches campaign against use of tobacco as part of his emphasis on observing Word of Wisdom by total abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, tea and coffee. Previously, Section 89 was not regarded as a commandment nor was it interpreted as simply abstaining from four specific substances. (1)

-- April 18, 1932
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] .... I told him I proposed to resign from the Commercial Club on account of their action in petitioning for 2.75 beer. He plead with me not to do so. I told him I considered it a personal insult for them to presume to mix up in a great political and moral question, that it was business they were supposed to be looking after.' (2)

-- May 5,1932
[Utah] Apostle Stephen L. Richards tells First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve that he will resign as apostle rather than apologize for his general conference talk which says church is putting too much emphasis on Word of Wisdom. He later confesses his error to Heber J. Grant on 26 may and retains his position. (1)

-- Feb 21, 1933
The Church began a six-day commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Word of Wisdom revelation with special observances in every ward. (3)

-- During February 1933
[Prohibition] In 1919 Utah quickly ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibiting "the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquor-- for beverage purposes." But in February 1933 Utah became the thirty-sixth and deciding state to approve the Twenty-first Amendment abolishing prohibition through repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. (4)

1 - Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Appendix 5, Selected Chronology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1848-1996,
2 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
3 - Church News: Historical Chronology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,
4 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Prohibition,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, Between 1923 and 1932

-- Between 1923 and 1932
[Prohibition] Between 1923 and 1932, Utah law enforcement officials uncovered 448 distilleries, 702 stills, thousands of pieces of distilling apparatus, 47,000 gallons of spirits, malt liquor, wine, and cider, and 332,000 gallons of mash. Yet this was only a small percentage of what was actually being produced, as practically every community and every neighborhood in the larger cities housed an illegal still. One of the easiest types of bootleg alcohol to produce was known as sugar whiskey. It required a 100-pound bag of sugar, a sack of cornmeal and a sack of yeast, which were mixed together and boiled in fifty-gallon drums. (1)

-- May 17, 1930
International Hygiene exposition at Dresden, Germany, includes LDS exhibit on Word of Wisdom. This is church's first formal participation in national or international exposition. In 1933, church has exhibit which includes sculptures by Avard Fairbanks in Hall of Religion at Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago. In 1935 church has its first exhibit building at California-Pacific International Exposition in San Diego. (2)

The Church participates in the first national/international exposition when the International Hygiene Exposition at Dresden, Germany, includes an LDS exhibit on the Word of Wisdom. (3)

-- During 1930
The Church‘s health code (Word of Wisdom) is featured in Dresden, Germany at the International Hygiene Exposition attracting 5,000 people each day and distributing 250,000 missionary pamphlets. (4)

-- Apr 2, 1932
Church began reemphasis on living the Word of Wisdom, launching a campaign against the use of tobacco. (5)

1 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Prohibition,
2 - On This Day in Mormon History,
3 - The Woodland Institute 'On This Day Historical Database,'
4 - Sherry Baker: Mormon Media History Timeline: 1827-2007,
5 - Hemidakaota, "Church Chronology from 1800-2000,"

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, 1919

-- During 1919
(Reed Smoot) Smoot complained that Heber J. Grant had publicly referred to him as "his royal nibs." The Senator vehemently declared that no man "ever saw me take a drink of liquor in a saloon or anywhere else," and offered to resign his apostleship. President Joseph F. Smith soothed Smoot's feelings, assuring him "that his personal course was understood and approved, but would not be publicly supported." President Smith advised Smoot to "be patient and understanding with his more rabid brethren."... (1)

[Prohibition] Persons could be convicted under the law for consuming, manufacturing, or selling alcohol. Newspaper reporters estimated that the law would affect four thousand persons in Salt Lake City alone who were dependent on the liquor business. As 1 August approached, liquor was sold at bargain prices and finally given away at any price. The Salt Lake Tribune estimated that hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of liquor were acquired and stored in the cellars of Salt Lake residents, while the Deseret News maintained that prohibition "will be the greatest blessing we have known since Christ." National advocates like evangelist Billy Sunday believed that prohibition would solve all of the country's social and economic problems. The movement grew, and in 1919 the Utah State Legislature joined with forty-five other states to ratify the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. (2)

-- Jan 16, 1920
The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution goes into effect, prohibiting the manufacture, production, and sale of alcohol. President Heber J. Grant, a fervent supporter of the amendment, believes it is divinely mandated because it outlaws items forbidden by the Word of Wisdom. (3)

-- Jun 22, 1921
The PROVO HERALD reports: "Dancing of a standard far worse than anything permitted in New York, Chicago, or Los Angeles [was] witnessed at dance halls near Provo. . . . Some eastern people with us were shocked at the dancing permitted at the resort. . . . I have seen a great deal of intoxication at dancing resorts in the county. . . . The obnoxious dancing positions are not graceful. Jazz music must be prohibited." (4)

-- August 3, 1923
[President Heber J. Grant Diary] President Moroni Lazenby of the North Sevier Staked called and discussed sending young men on missions who were users of tobacco, believing that they would reform in the missionfield. I told him I doubted the advisability of taking chances on their corrupting the good lives of those who were observers of the Word of Wisdom; told him, however, if he would write me a letter suggesting that we call young men subject to their first reforming, that perhaps we would do this. (5)

1 - Van Wagoner, Richard and Walker, Steven C., A Book of Mormons,
2 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Prohibition,
3 - The Woodland Institute 'On This Day Historical Database,'
4 - On This Day in Mormon History,
5 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom

History of the Word of Wisdom, May 27, 1917

-- May 27, 1917
[Apostle Heber J. Grant Diary] Related some personal experiences regarding the benefits of example. Told of the excommunication of Lorenzo D. Young because of breaking the Word of Wisdom. Related my experience as a young child in attending family prayers in the Lion House; stated that on more than one occasion I had opened my eyes and looked around, when President Young was praying, to see if the Lord was not standing there, because it seemed as though President Young were talking to him. (1)

-- Aug 1, 1917
[Prohibition] In his first message to the state legislature, newly elected Governor Bamberger identified enactment of prohibition legislation as the first duty of the legislature. Contending prohibition bills were introduced during the session. One, modeled on an Oklahoma law, called for a prohibition commissioner to enforce the law, banned all beverages containing in excess of one-half of one percent alcohol by volume, and allowed, under certain circumstances, for the search and seizure of alcoholic beverages without a search warrant. The other bill provided for enforcement by the governor and attorney general through the existing law enforcement system, raised the allowable alcohol content to two percent, and did not provide exceptions to the need for a search warrant. An uneasy compromise was passed with only one dissenting vote. The compromise legislation retained the one-half of one percent limit, but did not include the prohibition commissioner or the exceptions for sea
rch warrants. The law, signed by Governor Bamberger, went into effect on 1 August 1917. The law recognized that some products containing alcohol were legitimate; they included patented medicines, flavoring extracts, pure grain alcohol for scientific and industrial purposes, and sacramental wines. (2)

-- During 1917
[Prohibition] The prohibition movement called for the adoption of laws to prohibit the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The adoption of prohibition in Utah followed a course that paralleled that of other states throughout the nation in many respects and yet encountered issues and obstacles that were unique to Utah. Utah did not enact prohibition legislation until 1917, when it became the twenty-fourth state to adopt statewide prohibition; however, since most of the other twenty-four states already had passed local option laws, Utah was one of the last states to pass legislation regulating the manufacture and consumption of alcohol. (2)

-- During 1917 to 1933
[Prohibition] Although both Utah law and the U.S. Constitution outlawed alcohol, it was still produced, sold, and consumed during the period of prohibition from 1917 to 1933, and public officials were often frustrated in their attempts to enforce the law. As what had been the legitimate businesses became illegal, the enterprises became part of an underground institution of bootleggers and speakeasies. People in many different occupations were identified with the illegal trade. In their study of prohibition in southeastern Utah, Jody Bailey and Robert S. McPherson found that "Mormons and gentiles, miners and cowboys, farmers and businessmen, Mexicans and Navajos all trafficked in liquor." Many, but certainly not all the violators of prohibition were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe for whom moderate alcohol consumption was a long-established way of life. In some communities, even local law enforcement officers were involved in the illegal alcohol business. (2)

1 - Diary of Heber J. Grant,
2 - Utah History Encyclopedia: Prohibition,

LDS History Chronology: the Word of Wisdom

Mormon Timeline: the Word of Wisdom